Career Definition, Types, Factor, Resources & Planning



Career refers to a person's profession, occupation or employment path taken over the course of their life. It is a journey that begins with education and training and progresses with experience and skill acquisition. A career can span multiple industries, roles, and levels of seniority. In this article, we will explore the different types of careers, their definitions, and examples of each.

Definition of Career:

A career is a sequence of jobs, roles, or positions that a person holds during their lifetime. It is not limited to one profession or industry, but rather it encompasses all the opportunities a person has to earn a living, learn new skills, and advance professionally. Career development is the process of planning and pursuing a career path that aligns with an individual's goals, skills, interests, and values.

Types of Careers

Traditional Careers:

Traditional careers are those that have been around for many years and have established norms and procedures. They are typically found in industries such as medicine, law, and education. These careers require extensive education, training, and experience to be successful. Examples of traditional careers include doctor, lawyer, teacher, and accountant.

Non-Traditional Careers:

Non-traditional careers are those that are relatively new or have emerged in response to changing social and economic conditions. These careers are often found in industries such as technology, media, and creative arts. They may require specialized skills or knowledge that can be obtained through education or apprenticeships. Examples of non-traditional careers include data analyst, social media manager, app developer, and graphic designer.

Entrepreneurial Careers:

Entrepreneurial careers are those that involve starting and running one's own business. These careers require a unique set of skills and traits, such as creativity, risk-taking, and leadership. Entrepreneurial careers can be found in any industry, but are often associated with innovation and technology. Examples of entrepreneurial careers include tech startup founder, small business owner, and freelance consultant.

Academic Careers:

Academic careers are those that involve teaching and research in a university or other academic setting. These careers require a high level of education and expertise in a specific field. Academic careers can be found in a variety of disciplines, such as science, engineering, humanities, and social sciences. Examples of academic careers include professor, researcher, and academic administrator.

Government Careers:

Government careers are those that involve working for a government agency or organization. These careers require a strong understanding of government policies, procedures, and regulations. Government careers can be found at the local, state, or federal level, and can be in a variety of areas, such as law enforcement, healthcare, or public administration. Examples of government careers include police officer, healthcare administrator, and environmental policy analyst.

Military Careers:

Military careers are those that involve serving in the armed forces of a country. These careers require a high level of physical fitness, discipline, and teamwork. Military careers can be found in a variety of roles, such as combat, logistics, intelligence, and engineering. Examples of military careers include infantry soldier, naval officer, and air force pilot.

Self-Employment Careers:

Self-employment careers involve working for oneself, typically as an entrepreneur or freelancer. These careers require self-motivation, time management, and the ability to market oneself and one's business. Examples of self-employment careers include graphic designer, photographer, writer, consultant, and web developer.

Freelance Careers:

Freelance careers involve working on a project-by-project basis for different clients. These careers typically require specialized skills or expertise and may offer more flexibility than traditional employment. Examples of freelance careers include translator, copywriter, social media manager, web designer, and programmer.

Creative Careers:

Creative careers involve using one's imagination, talent, and creativity to produce artistic or original work. These careers may require specialized education or training and often involve working on a freelance or self-employed basis. Examples of creative careers include artist, writer, musician, graphic designer, and actor.

Service Careers:

Service careers involve working in industries that provide services to people or organizations. These careers may require specialized training or certification and typically involve working with people on a daily basis. Examples of service careers include nurse, social worker, counselor, physical therapist, and personal trainer.

Technology Careers:

Technology careers involve working with computers, software, and other forms of technology. These careers may require specialized education or training and often involve working for large corporations or tech start-ups. Examples of technology careers include software developer, data analyst, cybersecurity specialist, network administrator, and web developer.

Green Careers:

Green careers involve working in industries that promote environmental sustainability and conservation. These careers may require specialized education or training and typically involve working for organizations that prioritize sustainability and conservation. Examples of green careers include environmental scientist, sustainability specialist, energy auditor, and urban planner.

Factors to Consider

  • When choosing a career, there are many factors to consider. Some of the most important include:
  • Interests and Passions: It is important to choose a career that aligns with your interests and passions. Doing work that you enjoy can make all the difference in your job satisfaction and overall happiness.
  • Skills and Strengths: It is also important to consider your skills and strengths. Choosing a career that allows you to utilize your strengths and develop your skills can lead to a fulfilling and successful career.
  • Lifestyle: Your lifestyle goals and needs should also be taken into consideration when choosing a career. Consider factors such as work-life balance, flexibility, and location.
  • Salary and Benefits: While money should not be the only factor considered, it is important to choose a career that provides a comfortable salary and benefits package.
  • Job Availability and Security: It is also important to consider the job market and the security of the career you choose. Some careers are more in demand than others, and some are more susceptible to layoffs or downsizing.

Steps to Take Once you have considered the factors above, there are several steps you can take to help you choose a career.

  • Self-Assessment: Start by taking a self-assessment to identify your interests, skills, and values. This can help you identify potential careers that align with your strengths and passions.
  • Research Careers: Once you have identified potential careers, research them thoroughly. Look for information on job duties, education requirements, job outlook, and salary.
  • Seek Advice: Seek advice from professionals in the field you are interested in. This can help you gain insight into the day-to-day realities of the job and provide guidance on how to break into the field.
  • Gain Experience: Gain experience through internships, volunteer work, or part-time jobs. This can help you gain valuable skills and knowledge, and can also help you make connections in the industry.
  • Make a Plan: Once you have identified a career path, make a plan for how to achieve your goals. This may involve gaining additional education or training, networking, or developing new skills.

Resources to Utilize

There are many resources available to help you choose a career. Some of the most useful include:

  • Career Assessment Tools: There are many online career assessment tools available, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, that can help you identify potential careers based on your interests and skills.
  • Career Fairs: Career fairs are a great way to meet professionals in the field you are interested in and learn more about potential career paths.
  • Professional Associations: Joining a professional association in your desired field can provide valuable networking opportunities and access to industry events and resources.
  • Mentors: Seek out a mentor in your desired field who can provide guidance and support as you navigate your career path.
  • Career Counselors: Career counselors can provide guidance and support as you choose a career and develop a plan to achieve your goals.

Career planning is the process of identifying your goals and objectives in your professional life and developing a strategy to achieve them. It involves assessing your strengths and weaknesses, researching potential career paths, and creating a plan to reach your desired position.

Here are some steps to help you with career planning:

  • Self-assessment: Identify your strengths, weaknesses, skills, and interests.
  • Research: Research different career paths and industries that align with your interests and strengths. You can explore job descriptions, salaries, and qualifications required for different positions.
  • Network: Reach out to professionals in your desired field for advice and mentorship. Attend job fairs, industry events, and networking events to learn more about the industry and connect with professionals.
  • Set goals: Develop short-term and long-term goals that align with your career aspirations. Your goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).
  • Develop a plan: Create a plan of action that includes steps you need to take to achieve your career goals. This plan should include gaining new skills, acquiring relevant work experience, and building your network.
  • Take action: Begin taking the necessary steps to achieve your goals. This may include applying for jobs, enrolling in courses or certifications, or volunteering to gain relevant experience.
  • Reevaluate and adjust: Regularly evaluate your progress towards your goals and make adjustments to your plan as necessary. Remain open to new opportunities and be willing to adapt to changes in the industry.

Career planning is an ongoing process, and it requires effort and dedication to achieve your desired outcomes. With a clear plan and consistent effort, you can successfully navigate your career path and achieve your goals.


Choosing a career is a major decision that can have a significant impact on your life. By considering factors such as interests, skills, lifestyle, and job availability, and by taking steps such as self-assessment, research, seeking advice, gaining experience, and making a plan, you can make an informed decision that leads to a fulfilling and successful career. Utilizing resources such as career assessment tools, career fairs, professional associations, mentors.

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